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In the case of a mercury tube thermometer, the accuracy is increased by decreasing the inside diameter of the tube. The sensitivity of a thermometer refers to the minor temperature transform that can be detected or considered. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Fig: Sensitivity of a Thermometer Under the following conditions, a liquid in glass thermometer becomes sensitive- For a small change of temperature more change in the height of the liquid column. As for the part about how the liquid would expand more now at 100 degrees than before, that would be termed the "sensitivity" of the thermometer. (b) The highest temperature that this thermometer can measure is 110 °C. Post navigation ← 15. For a small change of temperature more change in the height of the liquid column. [1] (b) (i) The graduations on a liquid-in-glass thermometer are equally spaced. The sensitivity depends on the reversible thermal expansion of the liquid compared to the glass. Sensitivity, range and linearity of measuring instruments 17. This type of thermometer was developed by a German based physicist named Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.It consists of mercury as a liquid filled in a glass tube. 17. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Define Thermal Capacity and Specific Heat, Crab armies can be a key issue in coral wall preservation, Beaches cannot be extinct if sea levels continue to rise, Autonomous “Smellicopter” Drone Can Seek Out Scents with Live Moth Antennae, Scientists are finally studying why some of you don’t overturn your regulator, The vast wetlands of Els Eels are the most recorded at the bottom of the ocean. The liquid in the thin thermometer move further than the liquid in the thick tune in a similar temperature and similar atmospheric temperature – Why? Besides, they can not provide digital and automated results. The sensitivity of a mercury thermometer can be increased by using a smaller mercury bulb, thinner wall and smaller bore. The mercury thermometer is one example of liquid thermometers. Since its a liquid in glass thermometer, it will only work while the fluid is, well, fluid. But really its number 6 that determines the range. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. 2. The range can be increased by lengthening the bore. And it is the cause why a thin thermometer is additional perceptive than a thick thermometer. 6 UCLES 2019 0625/42/F/M/19 5 (a) State the values of the fixed points of a temperature scale. A smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat in shorter time. The principle used to measure temperature is that of the apparent thermal expansion of the liquid. Use LiG thermometers to help determine refrigerator, freezer, incubator, water bath, chemical, brewing solution and oven temperatures among others. Sensitivity - The amount of temperature change necessary before a change in the indicator is seen. To increase the range, you would have to lengthen the tube or increase the inside diameter. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers Let’s start our story with one of the most common thermometers used today, the liquid-in-glass (LiG) thermometer. If the bulb is large, heat capacity increases and if the bore is extremely narrow, then the liquid cannot flow freely. State the lowest temperature that it can measure. So, raise in the height of mercury in a thin thermometer is more than that of a thick thermometer. HOW THE LIQUID CRYSTAL THERMOMETER WORKS Each liquid crystal element is formulated for a specific temperature response The crystal molecules are sensitive to temperature and change position/twist in relation to changes in temperature A increase the internal diameter of the tube containing the liquid thread B increase the internal volume of the glass bulb and the volume of the liquid Thin thermometer means the cross-sectional area of the capillary tube is lighter than that of a thick thermometer, so on heating, the increase in the stage of mercury is more in case of a thin thermometer, than a thick thermometer. Use of liquid-in-glass thermometers includes following limitations too: 1. The sensitivity is virtually infinite with liquid in glass thermometers. Organic liquids which are usually employed for construction of liquid-in-glass thermometers include toluene, ethyl alcohol and pentane. Their sensitivity is based upon the reversible thermal expansion characteristics of the liquid in comparison to the glass. Like all temperature measuring devices, a liquid-in-glass thermometer may indicate different values at a given temperature over a period of time. A thermometer is said to be sensitive when it is placed in the body (whose temperature is to be measured) 1/10  or 1/100 part of one-degree temperature. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. 20 The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. How many kinds of fixed points in thermometer scale? In the Liquid In Glass Thermometers (LIG) the thermally sensitive element is a liquid contained in a graduated glass envelope. The range of a liquid-in-glass thermometer is limited by the length of the thermometer and can be increased by: increasing the diameter of the capillary – this means that the liquid will not expand as … Q & A Q: State and explain how the sensitivity of a liquid in glass thermometer can be increased. 4. The properties you really want to know about are range and resolution. Types of Liquid-In-Glass Thermometers [] Introduction []. To the left is a labelled diagram of a thermometer, you don't need to know all of the different parts of a thermometer, but I included it to help you understand. A LiG thermometer, by definition, is a glass capillary tube with a liquid-filled bulb at one end. The more liquid there is, the more liquid will expand and rise in the glass tube. Too much liquid, however, would cause the thermometer to react very slow to temperature changes, as the heating of the liquid will take longer and the liquid will take longer to adapt to the outside temperatures t… The temperature range is −80 to +330 °C depending on the liquid. The size of this affects its sensitivity to changes in temperature, the thinner the more sensitive it will be, because the mercury will come into contact with the cold or heat more quickly. Structure and advantages of a thermocouple. Alcohol is also used with this type of instrument. All rights reserved. A glass bulb with thinner wall – Heat can be transferred to the bulb straightforwardly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. There are at least five known causes of drift in liquid-in-glass thermometers: 1. A typical liquid-in-glass thermometer is shown in the figure below. Disadvantages of a Thermocouple Thermometer • Low sensitivity, and its low voltage output may be masked by noise. A glass bulb with thinner wall – Heat can be transferred to the bulb easily. Course overview. The greater the fluid expansion, the more sensitive the thermometer. Mercury Thermometers ; Alcohol Thermometers; Mercury Thermometers []. For alcohol-in-glass thermometer: -115 to 78°C In colder countries, most of its liquid-in-glass thermometers use alcohol and not mercury. A common range for liquid-in-glass thermometers is from –10 °C to 110 °C. The sensitivity and responsiveness can be increased by making the bulb at the bottom smaller and decrease the amount of glass surrounding it. As compared to electrical thermometers, they are very weak and delicate. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers. Sensitivity vs Range Hi! A mass of liquid and diameter of liquid thread B mass of liquid and length of stem C thickness of glass bulb and diameter of liquid thread I guess what you have mentioned here is that the range is dependent on how much liquid you have and far you allow that liquid to expand within your thermometer. –10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 °C liquid thread glass bulb stem liquid tube How can the thermometer be made more sensitive? Change in properties of the glass capillary, by glass annealing or by small cracks, 3. Custom thermometer strips are available formulated in ranges from -300C to +1200C (-220F to 2480F). A liquid in glass thermometer from Grainger can be highly accurate in helping measure a wide range of temperatures in many industries. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Course overview. 16 The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. What do you mean by Sensitivity of a Thermometer? The bulb should be of moderate size and the capillary tube should not be extremely narrow. Liquid-in-glass thermometers measure the thermal expansion of a liquid, which is placed in a solid container, on a length scale. Capillary with narrow bore – produces a bigger transformation in the length of the mercury column. So number 4, longer bore, lets you increase the range of the thermometer. The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer depends on the volume of liquid used and the diameter of the bore of the thermometer. A thermometer is said to be sensitive when it is placed in the body (whose temperature is to be measured) 1/10 or 1/100 part of one-degree temperature. Change in bulb volume, 2. They are considered inapt for applications involving extremely high or low temperatures. It is inside the glass body of the thermometer and is connected to the bulb. Sensitivity, range and linearity of measuring instruments-Sensitivity, range and linearity. Check out more GCSE physics tutorials at http://gcsephysicsninja.com Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. What changes will produce the greatest increase in sensitivity? The sensitivity of a thermometer can be increased by Using a thermometer with a smaller bulb – A smaller bulb contains less mercury and hence absorbs heat in shorter time. These cookies do not store any personal information. Liquid-in-glass thermometer properties-How the structure of a liquid-in-glass thermometer affects its sensitivity, range and linearity. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. It is calculated in meter/degree Celsius. In an analog device, like a mercury in glass thermometer, this is how small a change the unaided human eye can see a change against a scale. Using a thermometer with a smaller bulb – A smaller bulb contains less mercury and therefore absorbs heat in a shorter moment in time. More sensitive means more noticeable expansion. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. For the equal spacing of the graduations to be correct, state: 1. an assumption that is made about the liquid in the thermometer 2. an assumption that is made about the structure of the thermometer. For measuring temperature a sensitive thermometer is needed. Post navigation ← 14. Alcohol-in-glass thermometer Thermocouple Resistance thermometer Constant-volume gas thermometer ... liquid-in-glass thermometers . Hence, their use is limited to areas where only man… You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Capillary with narrow bore – produces a greater change in the length of the mercury column. If you put such a thermometer into boiling water, it sort of explodes as the expanding fluid shatters the glass casing. For this reason, liquid thermometers have a reservoirto increase the amount of liquid in the thermometer. The sensitivity of a thermometer is defined as the increase in the length of the mercury column per unit increase in temperature. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. , lets you increase the inside diameter on the liquid must have following. Put such a thermometer is shown in the thermometer is virtually infinite liquid! Conditions, a liquid-in-glass thermometer properties-How the structure of a thermometer with a liquid-filled bulb at one end you. Thermometers is from –10 °C to 110 °C a LiG thermometer, by definition, is liquid. 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